Data are summarized from various handbooks, textbooks, and manufacturers technical data sheets. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate an overview sciencedirect. Standardized plant used for the manufacture of dyes was converted for the production of explosives with remarkable speed. Rapidity of reaction 22 distinguishes the explosive reaction from an ordinary combustion reaction by the great speed with which it takes place. Characteristics of a new plastic explosive named epx1. Explosive reactions there are many chemical reactions that will release energy. The effect of temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction may be. Still manufactured on a large scale, petn remains one of the most powerful conventional explosives. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate c 5 h 8 n 4 o 12 petn was the explosive meant to be used by the underwear bomber. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized petn explosive powders are. Sensitivity is a measure of the ease with which an explosive can be detonated by heat, friction or shock and of its ability to propagate that detonation. A chemical reaction which proceeds through the material at a rate less than or equal to the speed of. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized. Petn is a powerful explosive material with a relative effectiveness.
Chapter i properties of explosives an explosive is a. The third edition of this popular book has been fully revised and updated and outlines the basic principles needed to understand the mechanism of explosions. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate petn, also known as pent, penta, ten, corpent, or penthrite or, rarely and primarily in german, as nitropenta, is an explosive material. Disposing of a few pounds of petn explosives at wais divide field camp. As powders do not readily hold a shape and tnt is the only common meltcastable explosive, most of the. The text on the classification of explosive materials contains much data on the physical parameters of primary. If the reaction proceeds slowly, the released energy will be dissipated and there will be few noticeable effects other than an increase in temperature. Around 500 alphabetically ordered, monographic entries consider the physicochemical properties, production methods and safe applications of over 120 explosive chemicals, while discussing 70 fuels, additives and oxidizing agents and describing the relevant test methods. A wide variety of manufacturers, distributors and service companies are featured in our extensive vertical directory to allow ease sourcing and research for petn explosives. The critical fluence of the initiation of the explosive decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate petn by the second harmonic of a neodymium laser 532 nm is found to be 12. Explosive properties of erythritol tetranitrate request pdf. Chemical explosive material having an extremely high reaction rate that creates very high combustion pressures, unlike low explosives that have a much lower reaction rate and are commonly used as propellants. This worldfamous work has been enlarged and updated without tampering with its tried and tested format.
Epx1 explosive contains pentaerythritol tetranitrate petn with different particle size as explosive filler bonded by nonenergetic thermoplastic binder plasticized by dibutyl phthalate dbp. Petn plasticised with pib detonated agains a brick. Tnt has a detonation velocity of 6,940 ms compared to 1,680 ms for the. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate c5h8n4o12 petn was the. Epx1 is a new plastic explosive in the research stage which has been prepared for military and civilian applications. Although the chemical structure of etn is simple and its preparation is undemanding, this explosive is. Unless the reaction occurs rapidly, the thermally expanded gases will be dissipated in the medium, and there will be no explosion. The petn acetone mix is then filtered and poured into a beaker containing 600ml of ice cold water, causing the petn to precipitate to the bottom as fine crystals.
The ingredients and more significant properties of each explosive are tabulated and briefly discussed. Etn is not well known, but in recent years it has been used by amateur experimenters to replace petn in improvised detonation cords or in boosters to initiate larger, less sensitive explosive charges. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized petn explosive powders are 44. Introduced after world war i, petn is in the same chemical family as nitroglycerin and among the most powerful of. So in this work, the 254 nm uv light was applied for the. The petn reaction will be examined as an example of thermo chemical. Explosive petn used in attack december 26, 2009 12. In this paper, the production method of epx1 was described. The physical and explosive properties of erythritol tetranitrate etn are described herein. The alcohol which is necesarry to create petn was first invented 1891 from berhard tollens and peter wigand throught basic condensation. A new method of preparing the high explosive rdx journal of the. The addition of an explosive ingredient, such as tnt, in sufficient quantity. Petn, explosive found on flight 253, is among most. The effect of temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction may be demonstrated strikingly by introducing a 12inch length of black match into a 10inch glass or paper tube which need not fit it tightly.
Explanation of the colossal detonation sensitivity of. The explosive properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate petn, cch 2 ono 2 4 have been studied thoroughly both experimentally 12345678 9 and theoretically. The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized petn explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrumdetecting and recovery technique. It is an essential nutrient for plant protein synthesis. Petn is difficult to detonate with a naked flame, as demonstrated by the shoe bomber richard reid, who tried to bring down an american airlines flight. The three explosives used, rdx, hmx and petn, are white. Introduction an explosive material, also called explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. Full text of semtex, how to make see other formats how to make semtex semtex is a powerful explosive that is widely used by terrorists.
Petn, short for pentaerythritol trinitrate, is a widely available and easily detected chemical explosive that has a long history of terrorist use. Petn thus remained a laboratory interest until world war ii, when it was used in ammunition, bombs, and other fragmention devices. Penta refers to the five carbon atoms of the neopentane skeleton. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reactions regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. There are many chemical reactions that will release energy. The complaint identified the explosive as pentaerythritol tetranitrate, or petn. It is the nitrate ester of pentaerythritol, and is structurally very similar to nitroglycerin. Terrorists may have used hardtodetect plasticbased explosive petn in wednesdays delhi high court blast the same substance used in the underwear bomb plot on a 2009 northwest airlines flight. Thermal decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Theory of explosives in general, an explosive has four basic characteristics. Revised and expanded to reflect new developments in the field, this book outlines the basic principles required to understand the chemical processes of explosives.
A new method of preparing the high explosive rdx journal. Petn is an explosive chemical that is currently used as the primary ingredient in detonating fuses and as a component mixed with hexahydro1,2,5trinitro1,3,4triazine in plastic explosives. The white powder is popular with extremists because it is available on the black market and very difficult to detect at. For example, semtex is a blend of cyclomethylenetrinitramine rdx and petn. Study shows why common explosive petn sometimes fails. Welcome to the premier industrial petn explosives resource.
The stable and safe explosive petn or pentaerythritol tetranitrate was chosen as it is safe to handle and can be detonated through a mobile phone. Petn, abbreviation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate, a highly explosive organic compound belonging to the same chemical family as nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose petn has the chemical formula c 5 h 8 n 4 o 12. High explosives are further categorized as primary and secondaryhigh explosive. Explosives usually have less potential energy than fuels, but their high rate of energy release produces a great blast pressure. It is prepared by reacting pentaerythritol c 5 h 12 o 4, an alcohol traditionally used in paints and varnishes, with nitric acid hno 2. For many warheads that energy is stored in the form of chemical explosives. The decision was made to simple blow up the rest of the explosives to dispose of them, rather than go through the. The chemistry of explosives provides an overview of the history of explosives, taking the reader to future developments. The sensor reaction of dcm was first characterized in molecular solution, as shown in fig. The explosive substance used in the air freight bomb plot was cleverly concealed inside a printer cartridge within a package, making it very difficult to detect. An explosive is a material, cither a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an ex. How to make petn, the same explosive used by the christmas.
Study shows why common explosive petn sometimes fails by sandia national laboratories sandia researchers alex tappan left and rob knepper watch the detonation of a critical thickness experiment. Etn is an explosive compound chemically similar to petn. The vast majority of explosives are chemical explosives. During this time, germany produced as much as 1,440 tons of petn per month, with the usa and the ussr following suit. As a nitrate ester, petn is structurally similar to nitroglycerin in its pharmacological vasodilatory and explosive. Pdf explosive decomposition of petn with nanoaluminum. Trace detection of rdx, hmx and petn explosives using a. This potential energy stored in an explosive material may be chemical energy, pressurized gas or nuclear energy. After settling, excess water and acetone are decanted and the remaining petn can be filtered out after filtering, the petn was put on a. Johnson, in wildlife toxicity assessments for chemicals of military concern, 2015. The three explosives used, rdx, hmx and petn, are white crystalline powders and their acetonitrile solutions are transparent to visible light, absorbing mainly in the middle ultraviolet muv region. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate petn is an explosive used as the primary ingredient in detonating fuses and as a component in some plastic explosives.1378 1257 512 787 1039 1089 477 1080 219 594 887 326 380 1602 751 915 88 1510 1668 342 280 1208 789 1467 500 582 1422 481 415 1591 1151 17 571 102 571 78 639 1064 197 1383 819 268 891